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Accueil > Grands équipements > La plateforme tournante Coriolis > Projets de recherche > Archives 2005

Coriolis effects on wind jets and cloudiness along coasts.

Orr A., Hunt J.C.R., Sommeria J., Capon D.J., Cresswell D., Owinoh A., Weather 60, 291-299 2005

Coastal meteorology is complex and of
great practical importance. The UK has the
world’s 14th longest coastline of over
12 000 km, with much of its population and
many of its large cities situated along it.
Many wind turbine ‘farms’ are being
installed in coastal waters (e.g. at Blyth,
Northumberland). Together with the
expanded use of photo-voltaic systems and
wave/tidal energy, it is intended to generate
up to 20% of the UK’s electricity by renewable
sources by 2020 (Department of Trade
and Industry 2003). However, the variations
of winds and sunshine along the coasts are
not always well predicted and some aspects
of the governing dynamics still need to be
studied in more detail, as recent studies on
the coast of California have demonstrated
(Rogers et al. 1998). Better prediction of
flooding in high winds depends critically on
more accurate calculation of coastal winds
(Hunt 2005). The increased surface roughness
over the land compared to that over
the sea alters the direction, reduces the
strength, and increases the turbulence of
the wind (e.g. Caton 1977). In the UK, the
‘sea-breeze’ flows up to 30–150 km inland
from the coastline on fine days (e.g. Simpson
1994). However, (as Manley (1955) implies in
his classic book on British weather) these
well-known effects do not explain some of
the important features of coastal meteorology
along the UK’s coasts, namely the formation
of low-level wind jets and the
associated variation of cloudiness.